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Evidence for a link between personality characteristics and eating behavior is mounting. However, the underlying neurobiological mechanisms remain unclear. In this review and meta-analysis we summarize the current knowledge on personality characteristics in relation to food-induced brain responses and suggest topics for future research. Overall, the number of studies is low and there is significant variability in findings: the variability in findings related to single personality characteristics was of similar magnitude as that between different personality characteristics. Nevertheless, many food-specific personality characteristics are interrelated and modulate food-induced brain responses in similar brain areas as more general personality characteristics do. To advance the field and improve consumer profiling, standardized measures of food-related brain responses and personality characteristics are required.