Wild Animals in Our Backyard. A Contextual Approach to the Intrinsic Value of Animals

J.A.A. Swart, F.W.J. Keulartz

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

24 Citations (Scopus)


As a reflection on recent debates on the value of wild animals we examine the question of the intrinsic value of wild animals in both natural and man-made surroundings. We examine the concepts being wild and domesticated. In our approach we consider animals as dependent on their environment, whether it is a human or a natural environment. Stressing this dependence we argue that a distinction can be made between three different interpretations of a wild animal’s intrinsic value: a species-specific, a naturalistic, and an individualistic interpretation. According to the species-specific approach, the animal is primarily considered as a member of its species; according to the naturalistic interpretation, the animal is seen as dependent on the natural environment; and according to the individualistic approach, the animal is seen in terms of its relationship to humans. In our opinion, the species-specific interpretation, which is the current dominant view, should be supplemented—but not replaced by—naturalistic and individualistic interpretations, which focus attention on the relationship of the animal to the natural and human environments, respectively. Which of these three interpretations is the most suitable in a given case depends on the circumstances and the opportunity for the animal to grow and develop according to its nature and capabilities.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)185-200
JournalActa Biotheoretica
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 2011


  • international guidelines
  • netherlands
  • welfare
  • ethics
  • reintroduction
  • domestication
  • otter


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