During the late 1980s/early 1990s, voluntary forest certification emerged as a new market-based incentive mechanism and had an important influence on the way the world's forests are managed. To understand the mechanism of its diffusion, we employed a survey instrument and probit regression analysis to investigate certification of forest practices by Canadian companies. Specifically, we investigated the characteristics of firms that have considered certification and of firms that have formally manifested their intention to certify. Three major forest certification schemes are considered: (1) ISO 14001, (2) the Canadian Standards Association, and (3) the Forest Stewardship Council. We find that a firm's type of tenure holdings, reliance on export markets, size, and the local community are important factors in explaining why forest companies consider certification.
Takahashi, T., van Kooten, G. C., & Vertinsky, I. (2003). Why might forest companies certify? Results from a Canadian survey. International Forestry Review, 5(4), 329-337. https://doi.org/10.1505/IFOR.5.4.329.22657