Who invests in energy retrofits? Mining Dutch homeowners’ data

A. Akhatova*, E. Derkenbaeva, E. van Leeuwen, L. Kranzl, S. Halleck Vega, G.J. Hofstede

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review


Climate change and energy challenges necessitate a deeper understanding of the drivers behind household energy-efficient retrofitting (EER) to inform policy. This study dissects the determinants influencing homeowner investments in four EER measures—window double-glazing, insulation of roofs, walls, and floors, solar panel adoption, and heat pump installation—aimed at crafting targeted policy recommendations. We explored the determinants by employing a combination of three methods: a systematic literature review to pinpoint associated factors, principal component analysis to explore Dutch national survey data, and binary logistic regression on the principal components. Our findings indicate a lower propensity for EER adoption among older, long-term homeowners, suggesting the need for governmental financial incentives and technical assistance to bolster energy efficiency in this demographic. Conversely, homeowners engaged in their communities demonstrate a higher likelihood of investing in solar panels and insulation. Policymakers should, therefore, leverage community dynamics to enhance EER uptake, emphasizing information dissemination and collaborative initiatives. Our study underscores the importance of tailored support and the mobilization of community networks as critical to advancing household energy efficiency and broader sustainability goals. These and other insights can also inform energy policies in other countries.

Original languageEnglish
Article number114132
JournalEnergy Policy
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2024


  • Energy efficiency measures
  • Energy-efficient retrofitting
  • Energy-related investment decisions
  • Homeowners' decision-making
  • Principal component analysis


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