What Does the Circular Household of the Future Look Like? An Expert-Based Exploration

S.D. Keesstra*, T.A.P. Metze, L. Ofori, I.M. Buizer, S.M. Visser

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


Circularity is a necessity for the future of our society but individual households often find it difficult to contribute to this transition. This paper presents possible future visions of circular (and climate-neutral) households, inside and outside the house, regarding their contributions to the circular society, and taking into account food, energy, waste, household devices, and recreation. We combined expert interviews and a literature review to (1) explore imaginable futures for circular households, and (2) make a qualitative evaluation of the inside- and outside-house influences of households on a climate-neutral and circular society. Interviewees were selected to represent different scientific backgrounds. The four household types were organized according to more local or global, and collective or individual, levels: (1) the Househood (centering around neighborhoods); (2) the HouseNet (connecting households); (3) the Sharing Household (sharing goods between households); and (4) the Designing Household (input from circular-by-design products). The analysis shows that households can become more circular by connecting developments in social, ecological, and technological systems, such as those in price dynamics, policies, or land-use design. However, barriers and limitations need attention, including: (1) public awareness and willingness to change; (2) economic models; (3) waste; and (4) social justice.
Original languageEnglish
Article number1062
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - 12 Jul 2022


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