When fish are reared for food production in aquaculture, they can be held in different types of rearing systems and subjected to various husbandry routines and operations. Each of these systems or operations can present different welfare risks to the fish, which in turn are dependent upon both the species and its life stage. In this chapter, we address and outline potential welfare hazards the fish may encounter in a wide range of existing and emerging rearing systems used for on-growing. These systems include: (1) pond-based aquaculture, (2) flow-through systems, (3) semi-closed containment systems, (4) RAS, (5) net cages and (6) farming offshore using sea cages in exposed conditions. We also outline potential welfare hazards for two key farming operations: transport and slaughter. We present the tools the farmer can use to assess fish welfare during on-growing and also outline relevant welfare actions that can be taken to militate against welfare hazards.
|Title of host publication||The welfare of fish|
|Editors||T.S. Kristiansen, A. Fernö, M.A. Pavlidis, H. van de Vis|
|Place of Publication||Cham|
|Publication status||Published - 2 Jul 2020|