The non-agricultural use of pesticides in The Netherlands declined in the period 1986-2001 from 127 000 to 40 000 kg AI per annum. However use on pavements rose from 23% to 50% of the total non-agricultural use. To diminish the dependency on herbicides, both preventive and curative non-chemical weed control methods have been examined. In the future both mechanical and thermal methods can be improved. On a flat pavement mechanical methods are preferred because they are more effective. Two approaches are used by municipalities to lower the environmental impact of the use of herbicides on pavements. The first is to phase out the use of chemicals on hard surfaces and the second is the integrated approach in which herbicides are not prohibited, but used only on places and at times when the risk of run-off is below a mutually accepted level. Both approaches can be effective.