We agree on what we see: Teacher and student perceptions of formative assessment practice

M.J. Veugen*, J.T.M. Gulikers, P. den Brok

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

16 Citations (Scopus)


This study examines teacher and student perceptions of formative assessment (FA) activities used by teachers in the classroom. These activities are divided into five phases that together comprise the FA cycle: (1) clarifying expectations, (2) eliciting responses, (3) analysing and interpreting responses, (4) communicating about responses and (5) adjusting teaching and learning. Reliable questionnaires were used to measure the perceptions of 96 teachers and 1,095 students with regard to FA practice. Paired t-tests indicated no differences between the perceptions of teachers and students, except for with regard to clarifying expectations. Teachers used FA activities primarily to clarify expectations and elicit student responses, and they were least likely to apply them to adjust teaching and learning. The results suggest that the framework of the FA cycle could be used as an analytical lens for the reliable evaluation of the FA activities of teachers.

Original languageEnglish
Article number101027
JournalStudies in Educational Evaluation
Publication statusPublished - Sept 2021


  • Evaluation utilization
  • Formative assessment
  • Student perceptions
  • Teacher evaluation


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