Waist circumference and metabolic risk factors have seperate and additive effects on the risk of future type 2 diabetes in patients with vascular diseases. A cohort study

A.M. Wassink, Y. van der Graaf, T.W. van Haeften, W. Spiering, S.S. Soedamah-Muthu, F.L. Visseren

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12 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Aims To assess the effect of various measures of adiposity and of metabolic risk factors, both separately and in combination, on the risk of future Type 2 diabetes in patients with manifest vascular diseases. Methods This was a prospective cohort study in 2924 patients (mean age 59 ± 12 years) with manifest atherosclerosis. Metabolic risk factors were defined according to National Cholesterol Education Program criteria for the metabolic syndrome. Incidence of Type 2 diabetes was assessed by questionnaire and subsequent verification. Results During a median follow-up of 4.9 years (range 3.0–7.6 years) there were 178 cases (6.1%) of incident Type 2 diabetes. An increase with 1 sd waist circumference showed a strong association with incident Type 2 diabetes in both men (hazard ratio 2.45, 95% CI 1.97–3.04) and women (hazard ratio 1.77, 95% CI 1.38–2.26). Compared with patients with normal (i.e. below the National Cholesterol Education Program criteria for abdominal adiposity) waist circumference and <3 metabolic risk factors, both patients with normal waist circumference and = 3 metabolic risk factors and patients with high (i.e. above the National Cholesterol Education Program criteria for abdominal adiposity) waist circumference and <3 metabolic risk factors had an increased risk of Type 2 diabetes (hazard ratio 2.44, 95% CI 1.37–4.36 and hazard ratio 3.61, 95% CI 2.23–5.85, respectively). Patients with both high waist circumference and = 3 metabolic risk factors had the highest risk of developing Type 2 diabetes (hazard ratio 10.76, 95% CI 6.95–16.64). Conclusions In patients with manifest atherosclerosis, both presence of = 3 metabolic risk factors and presence of a high waist circumference alone are associated with increased risk for developing Type 2 diabetes. The combined presence of = 3 metabolic risk factors and high waist circumference, which is present in 15% of patients, is associated with a 10-fold increased risk of future Type 2 diabetes. To identify patients with manifest atherosclerosis at the highest risk of developing Type 2 diabetes, fat distribution in combination with metabolic risk factors should be considered
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)932-940
JournalDiabetic medicine
Volume28
Issue number8
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2011

Keywords

  • body-size measurements
  • tumor-necrosis-factor
  • beta-cell apoptosis
  • insulin-resistance
  • cardiovascular-disease
  • adipose-tissue
  • visceral fat
  • myocardial-infarction
  • computed-tomography
  • fasting glucose

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