Prolonged droughts and excess rainfall are expected to increase in frequency and intensity in southwest Uganda as a result of climate change. The aim of this study was to identify vulnerability and adaptation strategies of dairy farming systems in southwest Uganda to extreme climate events. Results showed dairy farming systems have been affected by extreme weather mainly through reduced quantity and quality of feed and water resources, and increased disease incidence. This impacted production and reproductive performance of herds, and increased disease incidence and mortality. Adaptation strategies of farmers included management of feed and water resources, migration of cattle, and reduction of the herd size.