Voluntary certification schemes and legal standards in the EU

R.A. Jongeneel, T. Herzfeld

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapterAcademicpeer-review


This chapter compares voluntary certification schemes and obligatory cross compliance rules in agriculture in the EU. Beside a comparison of attributes, the potential synergies between cross compliance and private standards are discussed along three levels of aggregation: the farmer, the supply chain and the regulator/legislator. Finally, the chapter reflects on the interaction between stricter cross compliance and the willingness to adopt private standards as a strategy of statutory over-compliance - the farmer's strategy to keep regulated outcomes far below or above the statutory defined limits. It is shown that there are similarities between cross compliance and certification schemes, but the benefits of one approach compared to the other depend on the ability to set appropriate standards. Also, membership in a certification scheme may enhance the likelihood of the farmers complying with environmental standards.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationThe Economics of Regulation in Agriculture:
Subtitle of host publicationCompliance with Public and Private Standards
EditorsF. Brouwer, G. Fox, R. Jongeneel
Place of PublicationWallingford, U.K.
ISBN (Print)9781845935573
Publication statusPublished - 2012


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