Vitamin K Intake and Risk of Coronary Heart Disease and Stroke in the Rotterdam Study

Anouk I. Engelen, Johanna M. Geleijnse, Cees Vermeer, Jacqueline C. Witteman, Albert Hofman, Oscar H. Franco, Edith J. Feskens

Research output: Contribution to journalAbstractAcademic


Introduction: Vitamin K serves as a cofactor in the carboxylation of vitamin K-dependent proteins that play a role in blood coagulation and the regulation of vascular calcification. Therefore, vitamin K intake may decrease the risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD). We aimed to investigate the associations of phylloquinone (vitamin K1) and menaquinone (vitamin K2; MK-4 through MK-10) intake with risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) and stroke in a Dutch population-based cohort study.

Methods: The analyses included 4,108 participants of the Rotterdam Study, aged 55 years and older, who were free of CVD and diabetes at baseline. Nutrient intake was estimated using a 170-item semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. To estimate the phylloquinone and menaquinone intake we compiled a new vitamin K food composition table using analytical and literature-based values. The occurrence of CHD and stroke was confirmed through medical records. Associations of phylloquinone and menaquinone intake with CHD and stroke incidence were examined using multivariable Cox proportional hazard models.

Results: Participants had a mean phylloquinone intake of 191.7 mcg/day and a mean menaquinone intake of 49.4 mcg/day. During follow-up from 1990 to 2011, 460 CHD cases and 546 stroke cases were confirmed. In multivariable-adjusted analyses, we found no associations of phylloquinone (HR: 0.94; 95%CI: 0.72-1.23) or menaquinone intake (0.97; 0.75-1.26) with CHD incidence when comparing the highest to the lowest tertile of intake. Stroke incidence was also not associated with phylloquinone (1.22; 0.96-1.55) or menaquinone intake (0.86; 0.68-1.10). Moreover, we found no associations with CHD or stroke incidence when analysing the intake of short-chain (MK-4 through MK-6) and long-chain menaquinones (MK-7 through MK-10) separately.

Conclusion: In this study, phylloquinone and menaquinone intake were not associated with risk of CHD or stroke.
Original languageEnglish
Article numberP050
Issue numbersuppl_1
Publication statusPublished - 10 Mar 2015


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