Vegetable production after flooded rice improves soil properties in the Red River Delta, Vietnam

A.P. Everaarts, J.J. Neeteson, H. Pham Thi Thu, P.C. Struik

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)


Vegetable production in South East Asia often is in rotation with °ooded rice. The puddling of the soil with flooded rice production may result in unfavourable soil conditions for the subsequent production of dry land crops. To establish whether permanent vegetable production results in favourable soil conditions for vegetables, the effects of five different permanent vegetable production systems and a system of vegetable production in rotation with flooded rice on soil properties after flooded rice were studied in a 2-year field experiment. Bulk density at 0.05{0.10 m depth layer decreased with permanent vegetable production and vegetable production in rotation with flooded rice. The decrease in bulk density was in°uenced by the application of organic manure and rice husks, and especially by the number of crops cultivated, suggesting that frequency of soil tillage had a major effect on bulk density. Ploughing with buffalo traction after flooded rice, in combination with construction of raised beds, could reduce or totally eliminate negative effects of puddling on soil structure. Bulk density at 0.15{0.20 m soil depth was not influenced. Soil acidity decreased significantly in all systems. Soil organic carbon increased in all systems, but significant increase was only found in two permanent vegetable production systems. Available phosphorus (P) significantly increased in two permanent vegetable production systems, with a positively correlation to the amount of P applied. The significant decrease in bulk density and increase in pH (H2O), after only 2 years, showed that soil conditions after flooded rice could be improved in a short time under intensive vegetable production.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)130-139
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2015


  • sandy loam soil
  • physical-properties
  • farming systems
  • puddling depth
  • tropical asia
  • wheat system
  • constraints
  • opportunities
  • management
  • lowland


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