Variation in acrylamide concentration in French fries : effects of control measures in food service establishments

M.A.I. Sanny

Research output: Thesisinternal PhD, WU

Abstract

The aim of this thesis was first to identify the major technological and managerial factors and to investigate their contribution to variation in acrylamide concentrations.  The second aim was to investigate the effect of technological and managerial control measures on the concentration and variation of acrylamide in the preparation of French fries in food service establishments (FSE).  The variation ininitial concentration of reducing sugars, variable frying conditions and food handler’s inadequate control of these factors in their daily practice could lead to the large variation and high acrylamide concentrations.  The least variation in acrylamide was found in French fries prepared in chain fast-food services (CFS) compared to institutional caterers(IC) and restaurants, although the mean concentration of acrylamide among the three FSE types was not significantly different.  The variation in frying temperature contributed most to the variation in acrylamide, followed by the variation in frying time; no obvious effect of reducing sugars was found.  The lack of standardised control of frying temperature and time (due to inadequate frying equipment) and variable frying practices of food handlers seem to contribute  most to the large variation and high acrylamide concentrations in French fries prepared in restaurants.  Lowering the concentration of reducing sugars in par-fried potato strips can be an effective control measure to reduce acrylamide concentrations in French fries, but only if prepared under standardised frying conditions in CFS and IC.  Frying instructions were shown to support food handlers’ decisions to start frying when the oil temperature reached 175oC, although an inconsistent effect of the instructions on the food handlers’ decisions to end frying was observed.  The mean concentration of acrylamide for the restaurants as a group was not significantly different, but data analysis for each restaurant showed that if the food handlers properly followed the instructions, the mean concentration of acrylamide was significantly lower compared to before instructions.

Original languageEnglish
QualificationDoctor of Philosophy
Awarding Institution
  • Wageningen University
Supervisors/Advisors
  • van Boekel, Tiny, Promotor
  • Luning, Pieternel, Co-promotor
Award date20 Mar 2012
Place of PublicationS.l.
Publisher
Print ISBNs9789461731432
Publication statusPublished - 2012

Fingerprint

French fries
food service
acrylamides
frying
control methods
food handling
restaurants
reducing sugars
fast foods
frying oil
temperature
data analysis
potatoes

Keywords

  • chips (french fries)
  • acrylamides
  • deep fat frying
  • quality controls
  • quality management
  • food preparation

Cite this

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title = "Variation in acrylamide concentration in French fries : effects of control measures in food service establishments",
abstract = "The aim of this thesis was first to identify the major technological and managerial factors and to investigate their contribution to variation in acrylamide concentrations.  The second aim was to investigate the effect of technological and managerial control measures on the concentration and variation of acrylamide in the preparation of French fries in food service establishments (FSE).  The variation ininitial concentration of reducing sugars, variable frying conditions and food handler’s inadequate control of these factors in their daily practice could lead to the large variation and high acrylamide concentrations.  The least variation in acrylamide was found in French fries prepared in chain fast-food services (CFS) compared to institutional caterers(IC) and restaurants, although the mean concentration of acrylamide among the three FSE types was not significantly different.  The variation in frying temperature contributed most to the variation in acrylamide, followed by the variation in frying time; no obvious effect of reducing sugars was found.  The lack of standardised control of frying temperature and time (due to inadequate frying equipment) and variable frying practices of food handlers seem to contribute  most to the large variation and high acrylamide concentrations in French fries prepared in restaurants.  Lowering the concentration of reducing sugars in par-fried potato strips can be an effective control measure to reduce acrylamide concentrations in French fries, but only if prepared under standardised frying conditions in CFS and IC.  Frying instructions were shown to support food handlers’ decisions to start frying when the oil temperature reached 175oC, although an inconsistent effect of the instructions on the food handlers’ decisions to end frying was observed.  The mean concentration of acrylamide for the restaurants as a group was not significantly different, but data analysis for each restaurant showed that if the food handlers properly followed the instructions, the mean concentration of acrylamide was significantly lower compared to before instructions.",
keywords = "patates frites, acrylamiden, frituren, kwaliteitscontroles, kwaliteitszorg, voedselbereiding, chips (french fries), acrylamides, deep fat frying, quality controls, quality management, food preparation",
author = "M.A.I. Sanny",
note = "WU thesis 5194",
year = "2012",
language = "English",
isbn = "9789461731432",
publisher = "s.n.",
school = "Wageningen University",

}

Variation in acrylamide concentration in French fries : effects of control measures in food service establishments. / Sanny, M.A.I.

S.l. : s.n., 2012. 199 p.

Research output: Thesisinternal PhD, WU

TY - THES

T1 - Variation in acrylamide concentration in French fries : effects of control measures in food service establishments

AU - Sanny, M.A.I.

N1 - WU thesis 5194

PY - 2012

Y1 - 2012

N2 - The aim of this thesis was first to identify the major technological and managerial factors and to investigate their contribution to variation in acrylamide concentrations.  The second aim was to investigate the effect of technological and managerial control measures on the concentration and variation of acrylamide in the preparation of French fries in food service establishments (FSE).  The variation ininitial concentration of reducing sugars, variable frying conditions and food handler’s inadequate control of these factors in their daily practice could lead to the large variation and high acrylamide concentrations.  The least variation in acrylamide was found in French fries prepared in chain fast-food services (CFS) compared to institutional caterers(IC) and restaurants, although the mean concentration of acrylamide among the three FSE types was not significantly different.  The variation in frying temperature contributed most to the variation in acrylamide, followed by the variation in frying time; no obvious effect of reducing sugars was found.  The lack of standardised control of frying temperature and time (due to inadequate frying equipment) and variable frying practices of food handlers seem to contribute  most to the large variation and high acrylamide concentrations in French fries prepared in restaurants.  Lowering the concentration of reducing sugars in par-fried potato strips can be an effective control measure to reduce acrylamide concentrations in French fries, but only if prepared under standardised frying conditions in CFS and IC.  Frying instructions were shown to support food handlers’ decisions to start frying when the oil temperature reached 175oC, although an inconsistent effect of the instructions on the food handlers’ decisions to end frying was observed.  The mean concentration of acrylamide for the restaurants as a group was not significantly different, but data analysis for each restaurant showed that if the food handlers properly followed the instructions, the mean concentration of acrylamide was significantly lower compared to before instructions.

AB - The aim of this thesis was first to identify the major technological and managerial factors and to investigate their contribution to variation in acrylamide concentrations.  The second aim was to investigate the effect of technological and managerial control measures on the concentration and variation of acrylamide in the preparation of French fries in food service establishments (FSE).  The variation ininitial concentration of reducing sugars, variable frying conditions and food handler’s inadequate control of these factors in their daily practice could lead to the large variation and high acrylamide concentrations.  The least variation in acrylamide was found in French fries prepared in chain fast-food services (CFS) compared to institutional caterers(IC) and restaurants, although the mean concentration of acrylamide among the three FSE types was not significantly different.  The variation in frying temperature contributed most to the variation in acrylamide, followed by the variation in frying time; no obvious effect of reducing sugars was found.  The lack of standardised control of frying temperature and time (due to inadequate frying equipment) and variable frying practices of food handlers seem to contribute  most to the large variation and high acrylamide concentrations in French fries prepared in restaurants.  Lowering the concentration of reducing sugars in par-fried potato strips can be an effective control measure to reduce acrylamide concentrations in French fries, but only if prepared under standardised frying conditions in CFS and IC.  Frying instructions were shown to support food handlers’ decisions to start frying when the oil temperature reached 175oC, although an inconsistent effect of the instructions on the food handlers’ decisions to end frying was observed.  The mean concentration of acrylamide for the restaurants as a group was not significantly different, but data analysis for each restaurant showed that if the food handlers properly followed the instructions, the mean concentration of acrylamide was significantly lower compared to before instructions.

KW - patates frites

KW - acrylamiden

KW - frituren

KW - kwaliteitscontroles

KW - kwaliteitszorg

KW - voedselbereiding

KW - chips (french fries)

KW - acrylamides

KW - deep fat frying

KW - quality controls

KW - quality management

KW - food preparation

M3 - internal PhD, WU

SN - 9789461731432

PB - s.n.

CY - S.l.

ER -