Vaccinology of classical swine fever: from lab to field

J.T. van Oirschot

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    188 Citations (Scopus)


    There are two types of classical swine fever vaccines available: the classical live and the recently developed E2 subunit vaccines. The live Chinese strain vaccine is the most widely used. After a single vaccination, it confers solid immunity within a few days that appears to persist lifelong. The E2 subunit vaccine induces immunity from approximately 10¿14 days after a single vaccination. The immunity may persist for more than a year, but is then not complete. The Chinese strain vaccine may establish a strong herd immunity 1¿2 weeks earlier than the E2 vaccine. The ability of the Chinese vaccine strain to prevent congenital infection has not been reported, but the E2 subunit vaccine does not induce complete protection against congenital infection. Immunological mechanisms that underlie the protective immunity are still to be elucidated. Both types of vaccine are considered to be safe. A great advantage of the E2 subunit vaccine is that it allows differentiation of infected pigs from vaccinated pigs and is referred to as a DIVA vaccine. However, the companion diagnostic Erns ELISA to actually make that differentiation should be improved. Many approaches to develop novel vaccines have been described, but none of these is likely to result in a new DIVA vaccine reaching the market in the next 5¿10 years. Countries where classical swine fever is endemic can best control the infection by systematic vaccination campaigns, accompanied by the normal diagnostic procedures and control measures. Oral vaccination of wild boar may contribute to lowering the incidence of classical swine fever, and consequently diminishing the threat of virus introduction into domestic pigs. Free countries should not vaccinate and should be highly alert to rapidly diagnose any new outbreak. Once a new introduction of classical swine fever virus in dense pig areas has been confirmed, an emergency vaccination programme should be immediately instituted, for maximum benefit. The question is whether the time is ripe to seriously consider global eradication of classical swine fever virus.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)367-384
    JournalVeterinary Microbiology
    Issue number4
    Publication statusPublished - 2003


    • hog-cholera virus
    • csf marker vaccine
    • c-strain virus
    • envelope glycoprotein e2
    • protein e-rns
    • subunit vaccine
    • oral immunization
    • chinese strain
    • pseudorabies virus
    • aujeszkys-disease

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