Vaccine-induced T cell-mediated immunity plays a critical role in early protection against pseudorabies virus (suid herpes virus type 1) infection in pigs

E.M.A. van Rooij, M.G.M. de Bruin, Y.E. de Visser-Hendriksen, W.G. Middel, W.J.A. Boersma, A.T.J. Bianchi

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    37 Citations (Scopus)

    Abstract

    The aim of our study was to evaluate the relative importance of antibody and T cell-mediated immunity in protection against pseudorabies virus (suid herpes virus type 1) infection in pigs. We induced different levels of immune responses by using: (1) a modified live vaccine; (2) the same modified live vaccine with an oil-in-water (o/w) adjuvant; (3) an inactivated vaccine; and (4) the same inactivated vaccine with an o/w adjuvant. Subsequently, we challenged pigs with virulent pseudorabies virus (PRV). We demonstrated that best-protected pigs stood out by maintaining strong T cell-mediated immune (CMI) responses after challenge. Of the immune parameters tested, protection against virus shedding was correlated best with the magnitude of the IFN-gamma-response of in vitro re-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) with an additional role for PRV-specific IgG2 antibodies. The use of an o/w adjuvant resulted in higher antibody and CMI responses, in particular with an increased frequency of memory T helper blast cells of in vitro re-stimulated PBMC. However, this adjuvant-induced enhancement of the immune response had a limited additional effect on the efficacy of inactivated vaccines. This study suggests a major contribution of the CMI response in early protection against PRV infection and that PRV-induced IFN-gamma responses may serve as a suitable indicator for assessing the immune status of vaccinated pigs. (C) 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)113-125
    JournalVeterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
    Volume99
    Issue number1-2
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 2004

    Keywords

    • aujeszkys disease virus
    • monoclonal-antibodies
    • interferon-gamma
    • b-cell
    • lymphocytes
    • responses
    • swine
    • mice
    • cytotoxicity
    • immunization

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