Using Implementation Mapping to develop an intervention program to support veterinarians’ adherence to the guideline on Streptococcus suis clinical practice in weaned pigs

Isaura Y.A. Wayop, Emely de Vet, Joanne N. Leerlooijer, Jaap A. Wagenaar, David C. Speksnijderl*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

Abstract

Streptococcus suis (S. suis) infections in weaned pigs are common and responsible for a high consumption of antimicrobials, and their presence is assumed to be multi-factorial. A specific evidence-based veterinary guideline to support the control of S. suis in weaned pigs was developed for veterinary practitioners in the Netherlands in 2014. Adherence to the S. suis clinical practice guideline helps veterinary practitioners to prevent and control the disease in a systematical approach and thereby improve antimicrobial stewardship and contribute to the prevention of antimicrobial resistance in animals and humans. The impact of such a clinical practice guideline on (animal) disease management depends not only on its content, but also largely on the extent to which practitioners adhere to the clinical guideline in practice. When the S. suis guideline was published, no specific activities were undertaken to support veterinarians’ uptake and implementation, thereby contributing to suboptimal adherence in clinical practice. As the S. suis guideline was comprehensively written by veterinary experts following an evidence-based approach, our aim was not to judge the (scientific) quality of the guideline but to study the possibility to improve the currently low adherence of this guideline in veterinary practice. This paper describes the systematic development, using Implementation Mapping, of a theory-based intervention program to support swine veterinarians’ adherence to the S. suis guideline. The knowledge, skills, beliefs about capabilities, and beliefs about consequences domains are addressed in the program, which includes seven evidence-based methods (modelling, tailoring, feedback, discussion, persuasive communication, active learning, and self-monitoring) for use in program activities such as a peer-learning meeting and an e-learning module. The intervention program has been developed for practicing swine veterinarians, lasts eight months, and is evaluated through a stepped-wedge design. The Implementation Mapping approach ensured that all relevant adopters and implementers were involved, and that outcomes, determinants (influencing factors), and objectives were systematically discussed.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere0299905
JournalPLoS ONE
Volume19
Issue number4 April
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2024

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