This review provides an overview of results obtained when using proteome analysis for detecting sex-based differences in response to toxicants. It reveals implications to be taken into account when considering the use of proteomics in toxicological studies. It appears that results may differ when studying the same chemical in the same species in different target tissues. Another result of interest is the limited dose-response behavior of differential abundance patterns observed in studies where more than one dose level is tested. It is concluded that use of proteomics to study differences in modes of action of toxic compounds is an active area of research. The examples from use of proteomics to study sex-dependent differences also reveal that further studies are needed to provide reliable insight in modes of action, novel biomarkers or even novel therapies. To eventually reach this aim for this and other toxicological endpoints, it is essential to consider background variability, consequences of timing of toxicant administration, dose-response behavior, relevant species and target organ, species and organ variability and the presence of proteoforms.
- mode of action
- Sex related differences