The development of reliable nonanimal based testing strategies, such as in vitro bioassays, is the holy grail in current human safety testing of chemicals. However, the use of in vitro toxicity data in risk assessment is not straightforward. One of the main issues is that concentration-response curves from in vitro models need to be converted to in vivo dose-response curves. These dose-response curves are needed in toxicological risk assessment to obtain a point of departure to determine safe exposure levels for humans. Recent scientific developments enable this translation of in vitro concentration-response curves to in vivo dose-response curves using physiologically based kinetic (PBK) modeling-based reverse dosimetry. The present review provides an overview of the examples available in the literature on the prediction of in vivo toxicity using PBK modeling-based reverse dosimetry of in vitro toxicity data, showing that proofs-of-principle are available for toxicity end points ranging from developmental toxicity, nephrotoxicity, hepatotoxicity, and neurotoxicity to DNA adduct formation. This review also discusses the promises and pitfalls, and the future perspectives of the approach. Since proofs-of-principle available so far have been provided for the prediction of toxicity in experimental animals, future research should focus on the use of in vitro toxicity data obtained in human models to predict the human situation using human PBK models. This would facilitate human- instead of experimental animal-based approaches in risk assessment.