Amide exchange mass spectrometry (MS) was used to study the enzyme endopolygalacturonase II (EPG-II) from Aspergillus niger as it binds to an oligosaccharide substrate. A localized decrease in the level of deuterium incorporation in EPG-II of the EPG-II-oligosaccharide complex relative to that of the free EPG-II identified the location of substrate contact, which is in agreement with published site specific mutation studies. In addition, when bound with substrate, regions of EPG-II remote from the substrate binding site became exposed to the solvent, as revealed by an increase in the amount of incorporated deuterium, indicating a conformational change in the enzyme. Fluorescence experiments were performed to provide additional evidence for an altered conformation of EPG-II as a result of substrate binding. This novel application of amide exchange-MS to the study of protein-carbohydrate binding has, for the first time, described in detail the conformational changes associated with EPG-II when it binds a substrate. Amide exchange-MS was also used to study the interactions of EPG-II and the polygalacturonase inhibitor protein (PGIP). Mass spectral data of the EPG-II-oligosaccharide complex in the presence of Phaseolus vulgaris PGIP indicate that the inhibitor contacts EPG-II at a site remote from the substrate binding cleft, and is restricting the conformational changes of EPG-II. Fluorescence experiments also revealed that upon binding of PGIP, the conformational changes mentioned above for the EPG-II-substrate complex are minimized. These results, together with previously reported data, point to a location on EPG-II for interaction with PGIP as well as a possible mechanism for noncompetitive inhibition of EPG-II.