In the 1990s the Dutch government expressed the need to investigate the impacts of diffuse pollution at (sub)-ecosystem levels. The resulting Netherlands Stimulation Programme on System-oriented Ecotoxicological Research (SSEO programme) ran from 1998 to 2006. Its primary objective was to assess the impacts of low- to medium-level, diffuse, multiple contaminations on ecosystems. The research results were intended as underpinning for policies on environmental, conservation and nature issues. Research was carried out at three sites that were selected because of their importance for nature management and the presence of diffuse contamination. These sites were: a river meadow/floodplain area (Afferdensche en Deestsche Waarden), an estuarine reed-land area (Biesbosch) and an area of lowland peat soils that had been contaminated with urban waste in past centuries (De Ronde Venen).
- sediment quality triad
- river rhine