Update of risk assessments of main marine biotoxins in the European Union

I. Paredes, I. Rietjens, J.M. Vieites, A.G. Cabado

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

50 Citations (Scopus)


This review is an up-to-date compilation of the available literature, including scientific papers, reviews, and EFSA's opinions, on toxicity and risk assessment data on the main marine biotoxins of importance in the European Union, including the legislated ones and the ones of recent appearance which are not legislated. Information about the hazard identification and hazard characterisation of okadaic acid, dynophysistoxins, pectenotoxins, yessotoxins, azaspiracids, domoic acid, saxitoxins, tetrodotoxins, brevetoxins, ciguatoxins, cyclic imines and palytoxins is reviewed and presented in the form of a collection of risk assessments. It is concluded that the importance of having an appropriate exposure assessment reiterates the urgency of establishing a database with representative and comparable data on exposure to food items possiby containing marine biotoxins. It is also concluded that a revision of the present regulation of marine biotoxins in the EU legislation could be considered, as some regulated toxins have been shown not to pose a risk for EU's population (as yessotoxin) and some non regulated toxins have been shown to be harmful and/or to occur in the EU (as tetrodotoxin, palytoxin, and some cyclic imines) while they are not regulated.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)336-354
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 2011


  • dinoflagellate gambierdiscus-toxicus
  • pectenotoxin-2 seco acid
  • gated sodium-channels
  • domoic acid
  • okadaic acid
  • human health
  • protoceratium-reticulatum
  • alexandrium-ostenfeldii
  • new-zealand
  • structural determinants

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