Two-month mortality syndrome and other problems encountered by shrimp farmers in the Philippines

E.A. Tendencia, R.H. Bosma

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingAbstract


The Philippines is an archipelago composed of more than 7000 islands. This makes aquaculture and fisheries a major source of livelihood for the Filipinos. One of the major specie scultured in the Philippines is the tige shrimp, Penaeus monodon.Tiger shrimp production was a luxurious business venture until the early 1990’s when the industry wasd evastated by luminous bacteria, and by the white spot sydrome virus (WSSV) in the late 1990’s. This study describes other problems encountered by P. monodon farmers in the Philippines and how they may relate to globally reported disease. Data were gathered using a structured questionnaire. Respondents were shrimp farmers (n=174) from 8 provinces in the Philippines. Luminous bacteria, though easily controlled by farmers into semi-intensive monoculture is still a problem to some farmers applying extensive culture. WSSV continuos to be a problem to farmers both in semi-intensive monoculture and extensive polyculture with milkfish and/ or crab. Aside from WSSV and luminous bacteria, one of the major problems of farmers into extensive polyculture is the two month mortality syndrome (TMMS). Farmers call it the TMMS because the shrimp die before they reach DOC 60, some as early as 2 weeks. Mortality is up to 100%. TMMS maybe similar to the reported early mortality syndrome (EMS), but this can not be confirmed due to the absence of proper diagnosis such as histopathology and bacterial isolation. Other minor disease problems are protozoan infestation in the gills and cooked-like appearance even when alive. Other problems are environmentals uch as pollution due to reddish culture water released by adjacent farms, siltation which do not allow water to drain into the sea and decayed bamboo poles used for mussel/oyster culture. Possible risk factors of the TMMS and other problems will be presented during the presentation. Some preventive measures against TMMS and other disease problems might be through the proper implementation of the greenwater culture system and organic farming.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationBook of Abstracts: The 9th Symposium on Diseases in Asian Aquaculture (DAA9)
Publication statusPublished - 2014
EventDAA9, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam -
Duration: 24 Nov 201428 Nov 2014


ConferenceDAA9, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam


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