Triglyceride and fatty acid composition of ruminants milk, human milk, and infant formulae

Xiaodan Wang, Huiquan Zhu, Wenyuan Zhang, Yumeng Zhang, Pu Zhao, Shuwen Zhang, Xiaoyang Pang, Jacques Vervoort*, Jing Lu*, Jiaping Lv*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

10 Citations (Scopus)


In this study, triglyceride and fatty acid composition of Holstein cow milk, Jersey cow milk, yak milk, goat milk, human milk and 8 infant formulae samples were determined by UPLC-ESI-MS and GC, respectively. In general, the triglyceride and fatty acid composition of various milk samples were specific. Compared with infant formulae, human milk contained more triglycerides composed of unsaturated fatty acids, for example 18:0/18:1/18:2, 15:0/18:1/18:1, 17:0/18:2/18:2. The triglyceride, C52:2 in human milk consisted of more 16:0/18:1/18:1 than in infant formulae. In addition, the proportion of triglyceride 18:1/18:1/18:1 in infant formulae differed greatly among brands, ranging from 0 % to 38.56 %. Triglyceride 4:0/18:0/18:1 was present in bovine milk (> 1 %) but not detected in goat milk. The triglycerides, 12:0/12:0/12:0, 6:0/14:0/18:0, 12:0/14:0/14:0, 10:0/14:0/18;0, and 18:0/14:0/18:0 were present in goat milk (> 1 %), which were different from bovine milk samples. The triglycerides 16:0/16:0/24:0, 16:0/18:0/22:0, 16:0/16:0/23:0, and 16:0/18:0/21:0 contained long chain FAs in yak milk. In addition, the ratio of omega-3 PUFA to omega-6 PUFA in yak milk was about 1–2, which is a characteristic of the fatty acid profile of yak milk. This study could provide a theoretical foundation for optimizing the composition of dairy products.

Original languageEnglish
Article number104327
JournalJournal of Food Composition and Analysis
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2022


  • Fatty acids
  • Human milk
  • Infant formulae
  • Ruminant milk
  • Triglycerides


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