Plasmid mediated Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamase and AmpC Beta-Lactamase (ESBL/pAmpC) producing bacteria are resistant to beta-lactam antimicrobials and are widespread in humans, the environment and animals. Animals, especially broilers, are an important reservoir of ESBL/pAmpC producing bacteria. To control ESBL/pAmpC prevalence in broilers, transmission within the entire broiler production pyramid should be considered. This study, including 103 articles originating from two electronic databases, searched for evidence for possible routes of transmission of ESBL/pAmpC producing bacteria in the broiler production pyramid. Possible routes of transmission were categorised as 1) vertical between generations, 2) at hatcheries, 3) horizontal on farm, and 4) horizontal between farms and via the environment of farms. This review presents indications for transmission of ESBL/pAmpC producing bacteria for each of these routes. However, the lack of quantitative results in the literature did not allow an estimation of the relative contribution or magnitude of the different routes. Future research should be specifically targeted towards such information as it is crucial to guide reduction strategies for the spread of ESBL/pAmpC producing bacteria in the broiler production chain.
- Antimicrobial resistance