Transmission and control of African Horse Sickness in The Netherlands: a model analysis.

J.A. Backer, G. Nodelijk

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

26 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

African horse sickness (AHS) is an equine viral disease that is spread by Culicoides spp. Since the closely related disease bluetongue established itself in The Netherlands in 2006, AHS is considered a potential threat for the Dutch horse population. A vector-host model that incorporates the current knowledge of the infection biology is used to explore the effect of different parameters on whether and how the disease will spread, and to assess the effect of control measures. The time of introduction is an important determinant whether and how the disease will spread, depending on temperature and vector season. Given an introduction in the most favourable and constant circumstances, our results identify the vector-to-host ratio as the most important factor, because of its high variability over the country. Furthermore, a higher temperature accelerates the epidemic, while a higher horse density increases the extent of the epidemic. Due to the short infectious period in horses, the obvious clinical signs and the presence of non-susceptible hosts, AHS is expected to invade and spread less easily than bluetongue. Moreover, detection is presumed to be earlier, which allows control measures to be targeted towards elimination of infection sources. We argue that recommended control measures are euthanasia of infected horses with severe clinical signs and vector control in infected herds, protecting horses from midge bites in neighbouring herds, and (prioritized) vaccination of herds farther away, provided that transport regulations are strictly applied. The largest lack of knowledge is the competence and host preference of the different Culicoides species present in temperate regions.
LanguageEnglish
Article numbere23066
JournalPLoS ONE
Volume6
Issue number8
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2011

Fingerprint

African Horse Sickness
African horse sickness
Netherlands
Horses
horses
Bluetongue
Ceratopogonidae
control methods
Culicoides
bluetongue
herds
Horse Diseases
Temperature
Euthanasia
Virus Diseases
Bites and Stings
Infection
vector control
midges
host preferences

Keywords

  • culicoides-variipennis diptera
  • basic reproduction number
  • bluetongue virus
  • ceratopogonidae
  • simulation
  • epidemic
  • efficacy
  • vaccine
  • spain

Cite this

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title = "Transmission and control of African Horse Sickness in The Netherlands: a model analysis.",
abstract = "African horse sickness (AHS) is an equine viral disease that is spread by Culicoides spp. Since the closely related disease bluetongue established itself in The Netherlands in 2006, AHS is considered a potential threat for the Dutch horse population. A vector-host model that incorporates the current knowledge of the infection biology is used to explore the effect of different parameters on whether and how the disease will spread, and to assess the effect of control measures. The time of introduction is an important determinant whether and how the disease will spread, depending on temperature and vector season. Given an introduction in the most favourable and constant circumstances, our results identify the vector-to-host ratio as the most important factor, because of its high variability over the country. Furthermore, a higher temperature accelerates the epidemic, while a higher horse density increases the extent of the epidemic. Due to the short infectious period in horses, the obvious clinical signs and the presence of non-susceptible hosts, AHS is expected to invade and spread less easily than bluetongue. Moreover, detection is presumed to be earlier, which allows control measures to be targeted towards elimination of infection sources. We argue that recommended control measures are euthanasia of infected horses with severe clinical signs and vector control in infected herds, protecting horses from midge bites in neighbouring herds, and (prioritized) vaccination of herds farther away, provided that transport regulations are strictly applied. The largest lack of knowledge is the competence and host preference of the different Culicoides species present in temperate regions.",
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Transmission and control of African Horse Sickness in The Netherlands: a model analysis. / Backer, J.A.; Nodelijk, G.

In: PLoS ONE, Vol. 6, No. 8, e23066, 2011.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

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