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Xanthomonas fragariae is a quarantine bacterial pathogen that causes angular leaf spot on strawberry. The aim of our study was to analyse the mechanism of interaction of this bacterium with its host plant at the transcriptome level. For this purpose, mRNAs of X. fragariae growing in Wilbrink’s medium and from infected strawberry cv. Elsanta plants were isolated and sequenced using the Illumina MiSeq platform. The expression profiles of the bacteria in Wilbrink’s medium and in planta were very diverse. Of the 3939 CDSs recorded, 1995 had significantly different expression in planta (966 and 1029 genes were down- and upregulated, respectively). Among the genes showing increased expression in planta, those with eggNOG/COG (evolutionary genealogy of genes: Non-supervised Orthologous Groups/Cluster of Orthologous Groups) categories associated with bacterial cell motility, signal transduction, transport and metabolism of inorganic ions and carbohydrates and transcription were overrepresented. Among the genes with the most increased expression in planta, genes primarily associated with flagella synthesis and chemotaxis were found. It is also interesting to note that out of the 31 genes localized on a plasmid, 16 were expressed differently in planta, which may indicate their potential role in plant–pathogen interactions. Many genes with differentiated expression that were localized on chromosome and plasmid encode proteins of unknown function.
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