Towards a framework to access, compare and develop monitoring and evaluation of climate change adaptation in Europe

J.E.M. Klostermann*, K. van de Sandt, M. Harley, M. Hilden, T. Leiter, J. van Minnen, N. Pieterse, L. van Bree

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

29 Citations (Scopus)


Adaptation is increasingly recognised as essential when dealing with the adverse impacts of climate change on societies, economies and the environment. However, there is insufficient information about the effectiveness of adaption policies, measures and actions. For this reason, the establishment of monitoring programmes is considered to be necessary. Such programmes can contribute to knowledge, learning and data to support adaptation governance. In the European Union (EU), member states are encouraged to develop National Adaptation Strategies (NASs). The NASs developed so far vary widely because of differing views, approaches and policies. A number of member states have progressed to monitoring and evaluating the implementation of their NAS. It is possible to identify key elements in these monitoring programmes that can inform the wider policy learning process. In this paper, four generic building blocks for creating a monitoring and evaluation programme are proposed: (1) definition of the system of interest, (2) selection of a set of indicators, (3) identification of the organisations responsible for monitoring and (4) definition of monitoring and evaluation procedures. The monitoring programmes for NAS in three member states—Finland, the UK and Germany—were analysed to show how these elements have been used in practice, taking into account their specific contexts. It is asserted that the provision of a common framework incorporating these elements will help other member states and organisations within them in setting up and improving their adaptation monitoring programmes.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)187-209
JournalMitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change
Issue number2
Early online date15 Aug 2015
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2018


  • Adaptation
  • Climate change
  • Framework
  • Monitoring
  • National Adaptation Strategies


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  • ESS-CC

    Project: Other

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