particularly challenging because of the large number of vessels and trips that need to be monitored and the remoteness of vessels at sea. Several options exist in theory, ranging from patrol vessels to onboard observers and self-sampling. Increasingly though, technology is developing to provide remote Electronic Monitoring (EM) with cameras at lower costs. This chapter first provides an overall synthesis of the pro’s and con’s of several monitoring tools and technologies. Four EM technologies already trialled in EU fisheries are then summarised. We conclude that it is now possible to conduct reliable and cost-effective monitoring of unwanted catches at sea, especially if various options are used in combination. However, effective monitoring is a necessary condition for the successful implementation of the Landing Obligation but insufficient unless it is implemented with a high level of coverage and with the support of the fishing industry.
|Title of host publication||The European Landing Obligation|
|Subtitle of host publication||Reducing Discards in Complex, Multi-Species and Multi-Jurisdictional Fisheries|
|Editors||Sven Sebastian Uhlmann, Clara Ulrich, Steven J. Kennelly|
|Publisher||Springer International Publishing|
|Publication status||Published - 2019|