TLR9 mediates IgA production in the porcine small intestine during PEDV infection

Caiying Wang, Yabin Lu, Haoyuan Yu, Yue Zhang, Huub F.J. Savelkoul, Christine A. Jansen, Guangliang Liu*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review


IgA plays a vital role in defending against the infectious pathogens. However, the specific regulatory pathways involved in IgA secretion in the context of PEDV infection have remained elusive. Therefore, in this study, we explore the molecular mechanisms underlying IgA secretion in response to infection, with a particular focus on PEDV, a devastating enteric virus affecting global swine production. Our investigation begins by examining changes in IgA concentrations in both serum and small intestinal contents following PEDV infection in 2- and 4-week-old pigs. Remarkably, a significant increase in IgA levels in these older pigs post-infection were observed. To delve deeper into the regulatory mechanisms governing IgA secretion in response to PEDV infection, isolated porcine intestinal B cells were co-cultured with monocytes derived DCs (Mo-DCs) in vitro. In the intestinal DC-B cell co-cultures, IgA secretion was found to increase significantly after PEDV infection, as well as upregulating the expression of AID, GLTα and PSTα reflecting isotype switching to IgA. In addition, the expression of TLR9 was upregulated in these cultures, as determined by RT-qPCR and western blotting. Moreover, our findings extend to in vivo observations, where we detected higher levels of TLR9 expression in the ileum of pig post PEDV infection. Collectively, our results highlight the ability of PEDV to stimulate the generation of IgA, particularly in elder pigs, and identify TLR9 as a critical mediator of IgA production within the porcine intestinal microenvironment during PEDV infection.

Original languageEnglish
Article number110096
JournalVeterinary Microbiology
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2024


  • B cells
  • DCs
  • IgA
  • PEDV
  • TLR9


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