In drug discovery, it is important to identify phase I metabolic modifications as early as possible to screen for inactivation of drugs and/or activation of prodrugs. As the major class of reactions in phase I metabolism is oxidation reactions, oxidation of drugs with TiO2 photocatalysis can be used as a simple non-biological method to initially eliminate (pro)drug candidates with an undesired phase I oxidation metabolism. Analysis of reaction products is commonly achieved with mass spectrometry coupled to chromatography. However, sample throughput can be substantially increased by eliminating pretreatment steps and exploiting the potential of ambient ionization mass spectrometry (MS). Furthermore, online monitoring of reactions in a time-resolved way would identify sequential modification steps. Here, we introduce a novel (time-resolved) TiO2-photocatalysis laser ablation electrospray ionization (LAESI) MS method for the analysis of drug candidates. This method was proven to be compatible with both TiO2-coated glass slides as well as solutions containing suspended TiO2 nanoparticles, and the results were in excellent agreement with studies on biological oxidation of verapamil, buspirone, testosterone, andarine, and ostarine. Finally, a time-resolved LAESI MS setup was developed and initial results for verapamil showed excellent analytical stability for online photocatalyzed oxidation reactions within the set-up up to at least 1 h.
|Journal||Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry|
|Early online date||7 Jan 2019|
|Publication status||Published - Apr 2019|
Van Geenen, F. A. M. G., Franssen, M. C. R., Miikkulainen, V., Ritala, M., Zuilhof, H., Kostiainen, R., & Nielen, M. W. F. (2019). TiO2 Photocatalyzed Oxidation of Drugs Studied by Laser Ablation Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry. Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry, 30(4), 639-646. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13361-018-2120-x