A qualitative description was made of the agronomic characteristics of the vegetable cultivation system in two villages, Shengli and Xibei, in the peri-urban area of Pengzhou County, Sichuan Province, China. A great number of different vegetable species are cultivated, of which garlic and lettuce are the most important ones. A description of the climate and soils of the area and details of the cropping system and cultivation techniques of the major vegetables are presented. Winter season is the most important season for vegetable production. Most of the vegetable crops are transplanted and grown in rotation with wet rice. A small area is used for continuous dry land vegetable production. Major constraints in the production of the vegetables were identified. Recommendations to improve the vegetable production focus on variety research, modern transplant production methods, off-season cultivation, and improved knowledge on pest and disease control.