Background - Theory-based interventions on nutrition guidance practices of primary care physicians (PCPs) are thought to be more effective than those that do not use theory. Objective - To assess how often and which theoretical models of behaviour change are used in research on nutrition guidance practices of PCPs. Method - A review of articles published from 1995 to October 2008 (n = 111). Results - It was found that 45% of the articles in this review included theories or theoretical models of behaviour change. No difference in proportion of model use was found with time. Model use differed between type of study. In 29% of the articles, the Transtheoretical Model was used. Little was found on authors’ views on theoretical model applicability. Conclusions - Forty-five per cent of the articles on nutrition guidance practices of PCPs published from 1995 to October 2008 included theories or theoretical models of behaviour change. It would be beneficial for nutrition behaviour change research if more researchers use theoretical models and report on applicability of the selected theory, to increase effectiveness of nutrition guidance by PCPs.