Phorodon humuli (Damson-hop aphid) is one of the major pests of hops in the northern hemisphere. It causes significant yield losses and reduces hop quality and economic value. Damson-hop aphid is currently controlled with insecticides, but the number of approved pesticides is steadily decreasing. In addition, the use of insecticides almost inevitably results in the development of resistant aphid genotypes. An integrated approach to pest management in hop cultivation is therefore badly needed in order to break this cycle and to prevent the selection of strains resistant to the few remaining registered insecticides. The backbone of such an integrated strategy is the breeding of hop cultivars that are resistant to Damson-hop aphid. However, up to date mechanisms of hops resistance towards Damson-hop aphids have not yet been unraveled. In the experiments presented here, we used metabolite profiling followed by multivariate analysis and show that metabolites responsible for hop aroma and flavor (sesquiterpenes) in the cones can also be found in the leaves, long before the hop cones develop, and may play a role in resistance against aphids. In addition, aphid feeding induced a change in the metabolome of all hop genotypes particularly an increase in a number of oxidized compounds, which suggests this may be part of a resistance mechanism.
- Damson-hop aphid
- Hop metabolites
- Plant defense
- Plant resistance
- Untargeted metabolite profiling