The future path and pace of agricultural productivity growth areinextricably intertwined with investments in food and agricultural research and development (R&D). Looking back over half a century of evidence, we find that the lay of the global food and agricultural R&D land is changing, with indications that we are in the midst of an historic transition. The more notable trends are as follows: (1) for the first time in modern history (in purchasing power parity, PPP, terms), the middle-income countries now outspend the rich countries in terms of public-sector investments in food and agricultural R&D; (2) the shifting public shares reflect a continuing decline in the rate of growth of food and agricultural R&D spending by the rich countries, along with a generally sustained and substantial growth in spending by the middle-income countries (especially China, India, and Brazil); (3) in PPP terms, China now spends more than the United States on both public- and private-sector food and agricultural R&D; (4) the global share of food and agricultural R&D being conducted by the private sector has increased, especially in the high- and rapidly growing middle-income countries; and (5) the low-income countries are losing ground and account for an exceptionally small share of global spending. The mean and median values of the reported rates of return to food and agricultural R&D based on the IRR are high and remain so, with no signs of a diminution in the payoffs to more recent (compared with earlier) investments in R&D. But the available evidence on the returns to food and agricultural R&D is not fully representative of the institutional (i.e., public versus private), locational, or commodity orientation of the research and the agricultural sector itself. The Shifting Structure of Agricultural R&D: Worldwide.... Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/321253196_The_Shifting_Structure_of_Agricultural_RD_Worldwide_Investment_Patterns_and_Payoffs [accessed May 15 2018].
|Title of host publication||From Agriscience to Agribusiness|
|Subtitle of host publication||Theories, Policies and Practices in Technology Transfer and Commercialization|
|Editors||N. Kalaitzandonakes, E.G. Carayannis, E. Grigoroudis, S. Rozakis|
|Publication status||Published - 2018|
|Name||Innovation, Technology, and Knowledge Management|
Pardey, P. G., Alston, J. M., Chang-Kang, C., Hurley, T. M., Andrade, R. S., Dehmer, S. P., Lee, K., & Rao, X. (2018). The Shifting Structure of Agricultural R&D: Worldwide Investment Patterns and Payoffs. In N. Kalaitzandonakes, E. G. Carayannis, E. Grigoroudis, & S. Rozakis (Eds.), From Agriscience to Agribusiness: Theories, Policies and Practices in Technology Transfer and Commercialization (pp. 13-39). (Innovation, Technology, and Knowledge Management). Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-67958-7_2