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This thesis was aimed at understanding the in vitro fermentability of soluble and insoluble fibers in chicory root pulp (CRP). First, CRP and ensiled chicory root pulp (ECRP) were characterized for cell wall polysaccharides (CWPs). Both CRP and ECRP were rich in CWPs (56-58 w/w (%)) and had rather similar sugar compositions. The CWPs consist of 62 % pectin, 11% hemicellulose and 27% cellulose. Pectin and xyloglucan were acetylated and the rhamnogalacturonan-I segments of pectin were branched mostly with arabinan. Compared to CRP, ECRP has four times more soluble pectin.
In vitrofermentability in a batch model for 24 h using human faecal inoculum, showed that fibers in both CRP (51% carbohydrate utilisation) and ECRP (59% carbohydrate utilisation) were fermentable, especially pectin (80-87%). The increased levels of soluble pectin (arabinan, homogalacturonan and galactan) and the hypothesized open cell wall structure in ECRP contributed to a quicker fermentation and a higher level of carbohydrate utilization compared to CRP. In contrast to batch fermentation, fermentation in the dynamic TNO In vitro model of the colon (TIM-2) was rapid (57% carbohydrate utilisation in 2 h). ECRP carbohydrates (85%) were less fermented in 24 h compared to CRP carbohydrates (92%) due to lower utilisation of ECRP insoluble fibers than CRP insoluble fibers. It was hypothesized that soluble fibers that are readily fermentable and dominantly present in ECRP, programmed the microbiota in TIM-2 to fully adapt to these soluble fibers. After their utilization, the microbiota was not able to adapt towards the fermentation of insoluble fibers.
Analysis of enzyme activities during batch fermentation of CRP showed increased levels of arabinofuranosidase, β-galactosidase, endo-arabinanase, endo-galactanase, exo-polygalacturonase, pectin de-esterifying enzymes and endo-polygalacturonase. They synergistically contributed to degrading pectin in CRP from 12 to 24 h of fermentation.
|Qualification||Doctor of Philosophy|
|Award date||6 Jun 2014|
|Place of Publication||Wageningen|
|Publication status||Published - 2014|
- cell wall components