Biosecurity is important to prevent introduction and spread of infectious diseases, including Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI). HPAI is currently endemic in Indonesia and it has triggered the adoption of a biosecurity policy. Although there is anecdotal evidence about the level of biosecurity on Indonesian broiler farms, formal evidence is lacking, as well as knowledge about determinants of low biosecurity levels. This paper has two main objectives: 1) to assess the levels of biosecurity measures across different farm business types, and (2) to analyze the determining factors, with a special reference to farm business type, for the level of biosecurity and the availability of biosecurity infrastructure in the West Java poultry farms. A multi-stage sampling procedure was applied to collect data from approximately 400 broiler farmers in four districts in West Java province, namely Ciamis, Tasikmalaya, Subang and Sukabumi. Data were collected through farmer interviews and direct observation at the farms. The Biosecurity Control Score (BCS), consisting of 16 practice indicators, and the Farm Infrastructures for Biosecurity (FIB) list consisting of 16 building or physical set-ups as biosecurity facilities were used to assess the level of biosecurity. Determinants of biosecurity measures were analyzed via tobit regression analysis. The results show that the BCS was associated with the total number of birds per cycle, and risk perception (P < 0.05). The BCS was significantly (P < 0.05) higher for the farm business types ‘independent farming’, ‘price contract farming’ and ‘company’ compared to the ‘makloon contract farming’ business type (farming for a fee). Physical set-ups as farm infrastructure for biosecurity (FIB) were associated with the total number of birds per cycle, and with risk perception (P < 0.05). FIB was significantly (P < 0.05) higher for the farm business types ‘independent farming’, ‘price contract farming’ and ‘company’ compared to makloon contract farming. The results of this study suggest that business types play a significant role in determining biosecurity practices; a makloon contract farm (farming for a fee) tends to have a lower level of biosecurity than other business types due to lack of incentives. Consequently, in developing incentives for improved biosecurity measures. policymakers should encourage farm registration, and at the same time develop incentives that support the independent and price contract farming.
- Farm business types
- West Java