The role of epoxidation and electrophile-responsive element-regulated gene transcription in the potentially beneficial and harmful effects of the coffee components cafestol and kahweol

S.T.J. van Cruchten, L.H.J. de Haan, P.P.J. Mulder, C. Kunne, M.V. Boekschoten, M.B. Katan, J.M.M.J.G. Aarts, R.F. Witkamp

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17 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Cafestol and kahweol are diterpene compounds present in unfiltered coffees. Cafestol is known as the most potent cholesterol-raising agent that may be present in the human diet. Remarkably, the mechanisms behind this effect have only been partly resolved so far. Even less is known about the metabolic fate of cafestol and kahweol. From the structure of cafestol, carrying a furan moiety, we hypothesized that epoxidation may not only be an important biotransformation route but that this also plays a role in its effects found. In bile duct-cannulated mice, dosed with cafestol, we were able to demonstrate the presence of epoxy-glutathione (GSH) conjugates, GSH conjugates and glucuronide conjugates. In addition, it was shown that cafestol was able to induce an electrophile-responsive element (EpRE). Using a murine hepatoma cell line with a luciferase reporter gene under control of an EpRE from the human NQO1 regulatory region, we also found that metabolic activation by CYP450 enzymes is needed for EpRE induction. Furthermore, raising intracellular GSH resulted in a decrease in EpRE-mediated gene induction, whereas lowering intracellular GSH levels increased EpRE-mediated gene induction. In conclusion, evidence suggests that cafestol induces EpRE, apparently via a bioactivation process that possibly involves epoxidation of the furan ring. The epoxides themselves appear subject to conjugation with GSH. The effects on EpRE can also explain the induction of GSH which seems to be involved in the reported beneficial effects of cafestol, for example, when administered with aflatoxin B1 or other toxic or carcinogenic compounds
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)757-763
JournalJournal of Nutritional Biochemistry
Volume21
Issue number8
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2010

Keywords

  • cholesterol-raising factor
  • nf-kappa-b
  • rat-liver
  • glutathione transferase
  • normolipidemic subjects
  • diterpenes cafestol
  • boiled coffee
  • serum-lipids
  • cancer-risk
  • metabolism

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