The role of endogenous versus exogenous sources in the exposome of putative genotoxins and consequences for risk assessment

Ivonne M.C.M. Rietjens*, Arand Michael, Hermann M. Bolt, Bourdoux Siméon, Hartwig Andrea, Hinrichsen Nils, Kalisch Christine, Mally Angela, Pellegrino Gloria, Ribera Daniel, Thatcher Natalie, Eisenbrand Gerhard

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

24 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The “totality” of the human exposure is conceived to encompass life-associated endogenous and exogenous aggregate exposures. Process-related contaminants (PRCs) are not only formed in foods by heat processing, but also occur endogenously in the organism as physiological components of energy metabolism, potentially also generated by the human microbiome. To arrive at a comprehensive risk assessment, it is necessary to understand the contribution of in vivo background occurrence as compared to the ingestion from exogenous sources. Hence, this review provides an overview of the knowledge on the contribution of endogenous exposure to the overall exposure to putative genotoxic food contaminants, namely ethanol, acetaldehyde, formaldehyde, acrylamide, acrolein, α,β-unsaturated alkenals, glycation compounds, N-nitroso compounds, ethylene oxide, furans, 2- and 3-MCPD, and glycidyl esters. The evidence discussed herein allows to conclude that endogenous formation of some contaminants appears to contribute substantially to the exposome. This is of critical importance for risk assessment in the cases where endogenous exposure is suspected to outweigh the exogenous one (e.g. formaldehyde and acrolein).

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1297-1352
JournalArchives of Toxicology
Volume96
Issue number5
Early online date6 Mar 2022
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - May 2022

Keywords

  • Endogenous exposure
  • Exposome
  • Genotoxins
  • Process-related contaminants

Fingerprint

Dive into the research topics of 'The role of endogenous versus exogenous sources in the exposome of putative genotoxins and consequences for risk assessment'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this