This paper integrates theoretical and empirical models to study the rise of human obesity in Russia during the transition from a planned to a market economy. To test our hypotheses we use recent individual-level data from the Russian Longitudinal Monitoring Survey for 1995 and 2004 capturing representative periods of early and late transition. Estimation results strongly support our model of production and supply of BMI (body-mass index) and weight. The analysis indicates strong links between dietary patterns, individual characteristics, environmental factors and obesity in Russia. Understanding these relationships is important for designing effective public policies aiming to improve overall nutritional wellbeing and reduce obesity and mortality of the Russian population. Interventions, which enhance education and awareness of healthy lifestyles and healthy diet, could play a vital role in preventing obesity in Russia.