The relevance of gene transfer to the safety of food and feed derived from genetically modified (GM) plants

G. van den Eede, H.J.M. Aarts, H.J. Buhk, G. Corthier, H.J. Flint, W. Hammes, B. Jacobsen, T. Midtvedt, J. van der Vossen, A. Wright, W. Wackernagel, A. Wilcks

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

102 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

In 2000, the thematic network ENTRANSFOOD was launched to assess four different topics that are all related to the testing or assessment of food containing or produced from genetically modified organisms (GMOs). Each of the topics was linked to a European Commission (EC)-funded large shared cost action (see http://www.entransfood.com). Since the exchange of genetic information through horizontal (lateral) gene transfer (HGT) might play a more important role, in quantity and quality, than hitherto imagined, a working group dealing with HGT in the context of food and feed safety was established. This working group was linked to the GMOBILITY project (GMOBILITY, 2003) and the results of the deliberations are laid down in this review paper. HGT is reviewed in relation to the potential risks of consuming food or feed derived from transgenic crops. First, the mechanisms for obtaining transgenic crops are described. Next, HGT mechanisms and its possible evolutionary role are described. The use of marker genes is presented in detail as a special case for genes that may pose a risk. Furthermore, the exposure to GMOs and in particular to genetically modified (GM) deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is discussed as part of the total risk assessment. The review finishes off with a number of conclusions related to GM food and feed safety. The aim of this paper is to provide a comprehensive overview to assist risk assessors as well as regulators and the general public in understanding the safety issues related to these mechanisms.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1127-1156
JournalFood and Chemical Toxicology
Volume42
Issue number7
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2004

Keywords

  • agrobacterium-mediated transformation
  • polymerase-chain-reaction
  • facilitated illegitimate recombination
  • high-velocity microprojectiles
  • crown-gall tumorigenesis
  • gram-negative bacteria
  • free transgenic plants
  • coated gold particles
  • human fecal flora
  • e

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