Projects per year
blaESBL and blaAmpC in Enterobacteriaceae are spread by plasmid-mediated integrons, insertion sequences and transposons, some of which are homologous in bacteria from food-animals, foods and humans. These genes have been frequently identified in Escherichia coli and Salmonella from food-animals; the most common genes being blaCTX-M-1, blaCTX-M-14, and blaCMY-2. Identification of risk factors for their occurrence in food-animals is complex. As well as generic antimicrobial use, cephalosporin usage is an important risk factor for selection and spread of these genes. Extensive international trade of animals is a further risk factor. There are no data on the effectiveness of individual control options in reducing public health risks. A highly effective option would be to stop or restrict cephalosporin usage in food-animals. Decreasing total antimicrobial use is also of high priority. Implementation of measures to limit strain dissemination (increasing farm biosecurity, controls in animal trade, and other general post-harvest controls) are also important.
- antimicrobial resistance
Liebana, E., Carattoli, A., Coque, T. M., Hasman, H., Magiorakos, A. P., Mevius, D. J., Peixe, L., Schuepbach-Regula, G., Torneke, K., Torren-Edo, J., Torres, C., & Threlfall, J. (2013). The public health risks of enterobacterial isolates producing extended-spectrum Beta-lactamases (ESBL) or AmpC Beta-lactamases in food and food-producing animals: An EU perspective of epidemiology, analytical methods, risk factors and control options. Clinical infectious diseases, 56(7), 1030-1037. https://doi.org/10.1093/cid/cis1043