The Potential Impact of Underwater Exhausted CO2 from Innovative Ships on Invertebrate Communities

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

Abstract

Liquefied natural gas (LNG) powered ships equipped with an underwater exhaust system to reduce the ship’s water resistance could form a future generation of energy-efficient ships. The potential consequences of the underwater exhaust gas to the local ecosystems are still unknown. Especially, the CO2 levels may locally exceed estimated future global levels. The present study exposes marine communities to a wide range of CO2 dosages, resulting in pH 8.6–5.8 that was remained for 49 days. We found that the zooplankton and benthic community were adversely affected by high CO2 exposure levels. In detail, (1) between pH 6.6 and 7.1 polychaete worms became the dominating group of the benthic community and their larvae dominated the zooplankton group. (2) Due to the reduced grazing pressure and the flux of nutrients from decaying organic material planktonic microalgae (phytoplankton) stared blooming at the highest exposure level. The periphyton (fouling microalgae) community was not able to take advantage under these conditions. (3) Marine snails’ (periwinkle) shell damage and high mortality were observed at pH < 6.6. However, the growth of the surviving periwinkles was not directly related to pH, but was positively correlated with the availability of periphyton and negatively correlated with the polychaete worm density that most likely also used the periphyton as food source. Our result indicates that the impact of underwater exhaust gasses depends on various factors including local biological and abiotic conditions, which will be included in future research.
LanguageEnglish
Pages669-678
Number of pages10
JournalInternational Journal Environmental Research
Volume13
Issue number4
Early online date4 Jun 2019
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2019

Fingerprint

periphyton
invertebrate
polychaete
benthos
zooplankton
liquefied natural gas
grazing pressure
fouling
snail
phytoplankton
shell
larva
mortality
damage
food
nutrient
ecosystem
energy
ship
water

Keywords

  • Underwater exhaust
  • Periphyton
  • Plankton
  • Benthos
  • Mesocosm
  • ocean acidification

Cite this

@article{9a5f2367245444f795bae1e79464c39f,
title = "The Potential Impact of Underwater Exhausted CO2 from Innovative Ships on Invertebrate Communities",
abstract = "Liquefied natural gas (LNG) powered ships equipped with an underwater exhaust system to reduce the ship’s water resistance could form a future generation of energy-efficient ships. The potential consequences of the underwater exhaust gas to the local ecosystems are still unknown. Especially, the CO2 levels may locally exceed estimated future global levels. The present study exposes marine communities to a wide range of CO2 dosages, resulting in pH 8.6–5.8 that was remained for 49 days. We found that the zooplankton and benthic community were adversely affected by high CO2 exposure levels. In detail, (1) between pH 6.6 and 7.1 polychaete worms became the dominating group of the benthic community and their larvae dominated the zooplankton group. (2) Due to the reduced grazing pressure and the flux of nutrients from decaying organic material planktonic microalgae (phytoplankton) stared blooming at the highest exposure level. The periphyton (fouling microalgae) community was not able to take advantage under these conditions. (3) Marine snails’ (periwinkle) shell damage and high mortality were observed at pH < 6.6. However, the growth of the surviving periwinkles was not directly related to pH, but was positively correlated with the availability of periphyton and negatively correlated with the polychaete worm density that most likely also used the periphyton as food source. Our result indicates that the impact of underwater exhaust gasses depends on various factors including local biological and abiotic conditions, which will be included in future research.",
keywords = "Underwater exhaust, Periphyton, Plankton, Benthos, Mesocosm, ocean acidification",
author = "Yuzhu Wei and Lara Plath and Anne Penning and {van der Linden}, Maartje and Murk, {Albertinka J.} and Foekema, {Edwin M.}",
year = "2019",
month = "8",
doi = "10.1007/s41742-019-00201-z",
language = "English",
volume = "13",
pages = "669--678",
journal = "International Journal Environmental Research",
issn = "1735-6865",
publisher = "University of Tehran",
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}

The Potential Impact of Underwater Exhausted CO2 from Innovative Ships on Invertebrate Communities. / Wei, Yuzhu; Plath, Lara; Penning, Anne; van der Linden, Maartje; Murk, Albertinka J.; Foekema, Edwin M.

In: International Journal Environmental Research, Vol. 13, No. 4, 08.2019, p. 669-678.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - The Potential Impact of Underwater Exhausted CO2 from Innovative Ships on Invertebrate Communities

AU - Wei, Yuzhu

AU - Plath, Lara

AU - Penning, Anne

AU - van der Linden, Maartje

AU - Murk, Albertinka J.

AU - Foekema, Edwin M.

PY - 2019/8

Y1 - 2019/8

N2 - Liquefied natural gas (LNG) powered ships equipped with an underwater exhaust system to reduce the ship’s water resistance could form a future generation of energy-efficient ships. The potential consequences of the underwater exhaust gas to the local ecosystems are still unknown. Especially, the CO2 levels may locally exceed estimated future global levels. The present study exposes marine communities to a wide range of CO2 dosages, resulting in pH 8.6–5.8 that was remained for 49 days. We found that the zooplankton and benthic community were adversely affected by high CO2 exposure levels. In detail, (1) between pH 6.6 and 7.1 polychaete worms became the dominating group of the benthic community and their larvae dominated the zooplankton group. (2) Due to the reduced grazing pressure and the flux of nutrients from decaying organic material planktonic microalgae (phytoplankton) stared blooming at the highest exposure level. The periphyton (fouling microalgae) community was not able to take advantage under these conditions. (3) Marine snails’ (periwinkle) shell damage and high mortality were observed at pH < 6.6. However, the growth of the surviving periwinkles was not directly related to pH, but was positively correlated with the availability of periphyton and negatively correlated with the polychaete worm density that most likely also used the periphyton as food source. Our result indicates that the impact of underwater exhaust gasses depends on various factors including local biological and abiotic conditions, which will be included in future research.

AB - Liquefied natural gas (LNG) powered ships equipped with an underwater exhaust system to reduce the ship’s water resistance could form a future generation of energy-efficient ships. The potential consequences of the underwater exhaust gas to the local ecosystems are still unknown. Especially, the CO2 levels may locally exceed estimated future global levels. The present study exposes marine communities to a wide range of CO2 dosages, resulting in pH 8.6–5.8 that was remained for 49 days. We found that the zooplankton and benthic community were adversely affected by high CO2 exposure levels. In detail, (1) between pH 6.6 and 7.1 polychaete worms became the dominating group of the benthic community and their larvae dominated the zooplankton group. (2) Due to the reduced grazing pressure and the flux of nutrients from decaying organic material planktonic microalgae (phytoplankton) stared blooming at the highest exposure level. The periphyton (fouling microalgae) community was not able to take advantage under these conditions. (3) Marine snails’ (periwinkle) shell damage and high mortality were observed at pH < 6.6. However, the growth of the surviving periwinkles was not directly related to pH, but was positively correlated with the availability of periphyton and negatively correlated with the polychaete worm density that most likely also used the periphyton as food source. Our result indicates that the impact of underwater exhaust gasses depends on various factors including local biological and abiotic conditions, which will be included in future research.

KW - Underwater exhaust

KW - Periphyton

KW - Plankton

KW - Benthos

KW - Mesocosm

KW - ocean acidification

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DO - 10.1007/s41742-019-00201-z

M3 - Article

VL - 13

SP - 669

EP - 678

JO - International Journal Environmental Research

T2 - International Journal Environmental Research

JF - International Journal Environmental Research

SN - 1735-6865

IS - 4

ER -