The possible role of honey bees in the spread of pollen from field trials

H.A.W. Kleinjans, S.J. van Keulen, T. Blacquière, C.J.H. Booij, C.H. Hok-A-Hin, A.C.M. Cornelissen, C. van Dooremalen

    Research output: Book/ReportReportProfessional


    Honey bees are important pollinators in agricultural crops, home gardens, orchards and wildlife habitats. As they fly from flower to flower in search of nectar and pollen, they transfer pollen from plant to plant, thus fertilizing the plants and enabling them to bear fruit. In light of this, honey bees could be a factor in spreading pollen grains derived from genetically modified (GM) plants in field trials. The extent to which pollen dispersal occurs and the distances achieved depends on many factors. Knowledge of these factors may be important for (future) risk assessments of GM plants. An overview of relevant information concerning the relationship between honey bees and pollen is presented, based on a literature survey, a database of pollen composition of Dutch honeys and a concise laboratory experiment.
    Original languageEnglish
    Place of PublicationUtrecht
    PublisherAmeco Environmental Services & Plant Research International (bees@wur)
    Number of pages102
    Publication statusPublished - 2012


    • honey bees
    • apidae
    • pollen
    • spread
    • dispersal
    • field experimentation
    • transgenic plants
    • wild relatives
    • hybridization
    • risk assessment
    • netherlands


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