The Politics and Consequences of Virtual Water Export

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapterAcademicpeer-review


Virtual water is the water used or contaminated to produce a good or a service. With the large increase of export of agricultural produce during the last decades the amount of virtual water export has grown as well. Increased water contamination and water extraction for export from relative dry areas affects local ecosystems and communities. Simultaneously, the increased virtual water trade has weakened the local control over water resources by local communities, to the expense of multinational agribusiness and retailer companies. This repatterning of water control is fomented by numerous national governments, and at the same time contested by local communities. Partly as reaction to the critics on water depletion, agribusiness and retailers have created a number of water stewardship standards. Notwithstanding the possibilities for local communities to articulate their demands with these standards, until now most water stewardship standards have had little – or even negative – effects.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationEating, Drinking: Surviving
Subtitle of host publicationThe International Year of Global Understanding - IYGU
EditorsPeter Jackson, Walter E.L. Spiess, Farhana Sultana
PublisherSpringer International Publishing
ISBN (Electronic)9783319424682
ISBN (Print)9783319424675
Publication statusPublished - 2016

Publication series

NameSpringerBriefs in Global Understanding
PublisherSpringer International Publishing
ISSN (Print)2509-7784

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