The origin of the work function

H.C. Mastwijk, P.V. Bartels, P.G.M. Lelieveld

    Research output: Contribution to journalComment/Letter to the editorAcademic


    In this paper we analyse the mechanisms responsible for the bonding of electrons to metal surfaces. We present and validate a method to measure the energy distribution of dense electron ensembles at ambient conditions. We have found sharp structures in the energy distribution of charge confined at metal surfaces. These structures correspond to the onset of space charge i.e. electron emission. The threshold energy for emission increases linear with the free electron density. We conclude that the work function is a direct measure of the Hartree-Fock exchange energy. Remarkably, the emissions that have been observed do not obey the Einstein-Millikan threshold relation for the photo electric effect. By discrimination between requirements for energy and momentum we deduce that electron emissions are trigged by photon momentum. We claim that the photo electric effect is the result of a phase transition in an electron gas that connects a surface bound, condensed state to a free continuum state. The assignment of a phase transition to the effect under consideration is justified by analyzing the behaviour of the Fermi-Dirac energy distribution upon raising the Fermi level. We predict an abrupt increment in the number of electrons in the continuum that exceeds 70 orders of magnitude. Both the observed threshold energy and the line shape of the transition are in good agreement with theoretical predictions.
    Original languageEnglish
    Number of pages12
    JournalCondensed Matter: Strongly Correlated Electrons
    Publication statusPublished - 2007


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