Self-compatible (SC) diploid potatoes allow innovative potato breeding. Therefore, the Sli gene, originally described in S. chacoense, has received much attention. In elite S. tuberosum diploids, spontaneous berry set is occasionally observed. We aimed to map SC from S. tuberosum origin. Two full-sib mapping populations from non-inbred diploids were used. Bulks were composed based on both pollen tube growth and berry set upon selfing. After DNA sequencing of the parents and bulks, we generated k-mer tables. Set algebra and depth filtering were used to identify bulk-specific k-mers. Coupling and repulsion phase k-mers, transmitted from the SC parent, mapped in both populations to the distal end of chromosome 12. Intersection between the k-mers from both populations, in coupling phase with SC, exposed a shared haplotype of approximately 1.5 Mb. Subsequently, we screened read archives of potatoes and wild relatives for k-mers specific to this haplotype. The well-known SC clones US-W4 and RH89-039-16, but surprisingly, also S. chacoense clone M6 were positives. Hence, the S. tuberosum source of SC seems identical to Sli. Furthermore, the candidate region drastically reduced to 333 kb. Haplotype-specific KASP markers were designed and validated on a panel of diploid clones including another renown SC dihaploid G254. Interestingly, k-mers specific to the SC haplotype were common in tetraploid varieties. Pedigree information suggests that the SC haplotype was introduced into tetraploid varieties via the founder “Rough Purple Chili”. We show that Sli is surprisingly widespread and indigenous to the cultivated gene pool of potato.
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