The Netherlands

Yuri Bruinen De Bruin, Maryam Zare Jeddi

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapterAcademicpeer-review


Many sources exist that contain valuable information on toxicology testing methods comprising in vivo (use of whole animals) and in vitro (use of artificial environment outside of living organisms) testing methods. The information resources presented below relate to chemical substances and are collected to pro-vide key guidance on available information on in vivo, in vitro, and other toxicological testing and assessment methods (e.g., in silico toxicological methods performed on computer or via computer simulation), on relevant databases, published literature, books and journals, teaching aids, and finally organizations, foundations, and testing laboratories involved in toxicity assessment. The current information is of relevance for research, applied sciences and policy implementation purposes, such as the implementation of the European Union’s (EU’s) chemicals policy REACH (Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation, and Restriction of CHemicals) or the GPSD (General Product Safety Directive) and many other regulations. The provided information resources are recommended starting points when searching for information on testing methods, alternative testing methods and computational assessment methods. The reader should take note, however, that the information provided is not a comprehensive listing given the ever-expanding number of Internet and Web resources that are becoming available.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationInformation Resources in Toxicology, Volume 2
Subtitle of host publicationThe Global Arena
EditorsP. Wexler
Number of pages11
ISBN (Electronic)9780128216118
ISBN (Print)9780128216125
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2020


  • alternative testing methods
  • chemical safety assessment
  • data repositories
  • information resources
  • Toxicity testing methods


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