The neighbouring genes AvrLm10A and AvrLm10B are part of a large multigene family of cooperating effector genes conserved in Dothideomycetes and Sordariomycetes

Nacera Talbi, Like Fokkens, Corinne Audran, Yohann Petit‐Houdenot, Cécile Pouzet, Françoise Blaise, Elise J. Gay, Thierry Rouxel, Marie Hélène Balesdent, Martijn Rep, Isabelle Fudal*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)

Abstract



Fungal effectors (small-secreted proteins) have long been considered as species or even subpopulation-specific. The increasing availability of high-quality fungal genomes and annotations has allowed the identification of trans-species or trans-genera families of effectors. Two avirulence effectors, AvrLm10A and AvrLm10B, of Leptosphaeria maculans, the fungus causing stem canker of oilseed rape, are members of such a large family of effectors. AvrLm10A and AvrLm10B are neighbouring genes, organized in divergent transcriptional orientation. Sequence searches within the L. maculans genome showed that AvrLm10A/AvrLm10B belong to a multigene family comprising five pairs of genes with a similar tail-to-tail organization. The two genes, in a pair, always had the same expression pattern and two expression profiles were distinguished, associated with the biotrophic colonization of cotyledons and/or petioles and stems. Of the two protein pairs further investigated, AvrLm10A_like1/AvrLm10B_like1 and AvrLm10A_like2/AvrLm10B_like2, the second one had the ability to physically interact, similarly to what was previously described for the AvrLm10A/AvrLm10B pair, and cross-interactions were also detected for two pairs. AvrLm10A homologues were identified in more than 30 Dothideomycete and Sordariomycete plant-pathogenic fungi. One of them, SIX5, is an effector from Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici physically interacting with the avirulence effector Avr2. We found that AvrLm10A/SIX5 homologues were associated with at least eight distinct putative effector families, suggesting that AvrLm10A/SIX5 is able to cooperate with different effectors. These results point to a general role of the AvrLm10A/SIX5 proteins as “cooperating proteins”, able to interact with diverse families of effectors whose encoding gene is co-regulated with the neighbouring AvrLm10A homologue.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)914-931
JournalMolecular Plant Pathology
Volume24
Issue number8
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Aug 2023

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