The Intestinal Fatty Acid-Enteroendocrine Interplay, Emerging Roles for Olfactory Signaling and Serotonin Conjugates

Jocelijn Meijerink*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

Abstract

Intestinal enteroendocrine cells (EECs) respond to fatty acids from dietary and microbial origin by releasing neurotransmitters and hormones with various paracrine and endocrine functions. Much has become known about the underlying signaling mechanisms, including the involvement of G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs), like free fatty acids receptors (FFARs). This review focusses on two more recently emerging research lines: the roles of odorant receptors (ORs), and those of fatty acid conjugates in gut. Odorant receptors belong to a large family of GPCRs with functional roles that only lately have shown to reach beyond the nasal-oral cavity. In the intestinal tract, ORs are expressed on serotonin (5-HT) and glucagon-like-peptide-1 (GLP-1) producing enterochromaffin and enteroendocrine L cells, respectively. There, they appear to function as chemosensors of microbiologically produced short-, and branched-chain fatty acids. Another mechanism of fatty acid signaling in the intestine occurs via their conjugates. Among them, conjugates of unsaturated long chain fatty acids and acetate with 5-HT, N-acyl serotonins have recently emerged as mediators with immune-modulatory effects. In this review, novel findings in mechanisms and molecular players involved in intestinal fatty acid biology are highlighted and their potential relevance for EEC-mediated signaling to the pancreas, immune system, and brain is discussed.

Original languageEnglish
JournalMolecules (Basel, Switzerland)
Volume26
Issue number5
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 5 Mar 2021

Keywords

  • 5-HT
  • enterochromaffin
  • enteroendocrine
  • GLP-1
  • gut
  • microbiota
  • N-acyl serotonines
  • olfactory receptor
  • short chain fatty acids

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